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Russia and Baltic States
- 203 Russia mobilizes army to fight fires august 2010
- 202 The 2nd Wave Is Coming in Russia
- 201 Russia 2008 Travel Summary & Local laws and customs
- 200 Russia New legislation for real estate & tax rules may 2007
- 199 Russian ex-president Yeltsin dies
- 198 Journalist Anna Politkovskaya has been posthumously awarded
- 197 We must ask ourselves: Do we live in a society where corruption is a moral perversity to the normal flow of things? 28/9 2006
- 196 Transparency International listed Russia as one of the nations where perceived corruption had increased from the previous years survey, sep 2006
- 195 The Kremlin is warning Western governments july 2006
- 194 EU,US, Baltic States These countries have become the enemies in the new "chilly war" May 06
- 193 In fact, Russia is not so unique in having a problem with corruption -- indeed, most countries of the world operate in similar conditions 17 mai 06
- 192 Heads roll in anti-corruption drive 15 May 2006
- 191 Strong rebuke for the Kremlin - mai 2005
- 190 The energy ministers of the European Union (EU) have called on Russia to speed up the ratification of the Energy Charter, but Russia is not in a hurry to comply. April 06
- 189 Its a great story, but its an ugly one, too. Russia feb 2006
- 188 "The fish rots from the head." Indeed! jan 2006
- 187 Some estimates indicate that corruption in universities is rising by 7-10 percent annually, jan 2006
- 186 Russia Organized crime still remains a major challenge dec 2005
- 185 Russia’s Forestry Industry is perceived as one of the most corrupt in the world Nov 2005
- 184 Russia has reverted to the Wild East. But these days the crooks are the government. May 2005
- 183 U.N. Officials Cited in Oil - For - Food Case ´´take care´´ of ´´U.N. Official No. 1.´´ april 2005
- 182 UNDERSTANDING PALESTINIAN POLITICS , nov 2004
- 181 UNDERSTANDING TERROR NETWORKS, november 2004
- 180 PUBLIC THEOLOGY AND DEMOCRACYS FUTURE
- 179 Jan 20, 2004, When a leader who is trusted goes into battle, he must not be left alone
- 178 There may be an element of poetic justice in Vladimir Gusinsky
- 177 RUSSIA Groups Urge Putin on Privatization
- 176 Putin wanted to discuss methods of battling corruption
- 175 Corruption Costs Russia USD 30 Billion a Year
- 174 More Russians Back in Davos Feb 2003
- 173 Police officers were secretly members of criminal groups
- 172 THE TURKISH FACTOR IN THE GEOPOLITICS OF THE POST-SOVIET SPACE
- 171 EU candidates face corruption issues Nov 2002
- 170 Assassination of Magadan Governor Valentin Tsvetkov,
- 169 The Resurgence of Lies and Disinformation
- 168 Oil and trade play part in U.N. debate on Iraq
- 167 Center-Right Wins Latvian Poll
- 166 Radio Liberty Stripped Of Status
- 165 Most visits to Lithuania are trouble-free
- 164 The Soviet secret police -- VChK, GPU, NKVD, KGB Top Secret Files Tell Story of Expulsion
- 163 The Men Who Tried to Topple Mikhail Gorbachev
- 162 No Fireworks for 10th Anniversary After 10 Year No 7
- 161 Fall of the Soviet Union Symbolized Death of an Idea 10 Year after No 6
- 160 Defenders Recount Their Moment of Glory 10 Year after no 5
- 159 Communist Party Comes Full Circle 10 Year after No 4
- 158 What Putin Did During The Coup
- 157 Economic Crash No One Saw Coming 10 year after no 2
- 156 The Coup 1991 - 2001 Ten Years after no 1
- 155 OPEC, Russia and Iraq
- 154 Iran has said it wants the sea split equally between the five while Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan
- 153 the worlds third-largest nuclear arsenal belonged to little Ukraine
- 152 The shortcomings of Russias bureaucracy are legion, its incompetence is legendary
- 151 ............called for Chubais to quit. sep 2002
- 150 $3Bln Baku-Ceyhan Pipeline Gets Under Way
- 149 LUKoil in Talks With Kidnappers
- 148 Berezovsky & "The Godfather" and "Citizen Kane."
- 147 Not All Listen to Putins Orders
- 146 In Russia, majority shareholders rights do not exist
- 145 United States has blacklisted three Russian defense contractors it says are "transferring lethal military equipment" to countries supporting terrorism
- 144 Under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963..........the Pacific port of Vladivostok
- 143 The Dignity of Difference: Avoiding the Clash of Civilizations
- 142 Russian companies paid a total of 33.5 billion dollars in bribes
- 141 Duma member Vladimir Golovlyov shot dead in contract killing aug 2002
- 140 Putin issues Ethics Code for civil servants aug 2002
- 139 Latvia Premier signs decree on party financial declarations
- 138 Whatever Happened To Those Vouchers? Mr Putin?
- 137 Russia with Iran, and in particular its sale of nuclear technology
- 136 First Deputy Smolensk Governor Vladimir Prokhorov was shot and killed
- 135 Smuggling, da. Extortion, da. Murder, da.
- 134 Kremlin Kills Plan To Retake Resources
- 133 U.S. to Russia: Clean corruption up
- 132 Latvia Government decides on third competition to find anti-corruption chief
- 131 We do not give out any information!
- 130 "The U.S. Media -- Problems of Free Speech."
- 129 Defenders of the oligarch system in Russia liken the development to that of the robber barons in the United States and elsewhere
- 128 There Is a New Billionaire in Town
- 127 FREE PRESS in RUSSIA 2002, sorry its not
- 126 Russia Tracking down IMF billions Crime and Corruption Watch 27 Jun 2002
- 125 Russians pay for state corruption 07.2002
- 124 BUSHS SEARCH FOR COMMON GROUND june 2002
- 123 A bribery arrest in Krasnoyarsk
- 122 Georg P Shultz THE WORK OF DIPLOMACY Before & after the 11 sep 2001
- 121 THE FUTILE SEARCH FOR "ROOT CAUSES" OF TERRORISM
- 120 CIA Will Continue Search for New Russian Technologies
- 119 Swiss to repay Russia over bail for corrupt ex-Kremlin adviser Borodin
- 118 Lithuanian President Valdas Adamkus urged lawmakers to strengthen the fight against corruption
- 117 At present legal base for the transport and freight forwarding activities in the Russian Federation practically doesnt exist
- 116 Either the United States would cease to be a democracy or the Soviet Union would cease to be a Leninist dictatorship
- 115 Back to the USSR
- 114 From Russia With Love
- 113 "check that the paperwork was done correctly, but look right past the deeply corrupt heart of the matter
- 112 Stepashin Turns Up Heat on Ministers
- 111 After he refused to pay a police major a $20,000 bribe
- 110 With auditing today 10 years after the term arrived on the Russian market it turns out that everyone understands it differently
- 109 Putin said 7,000 killers had escaped punishment last year and that hundreds of thousands of other criminals
- 108 Majority of Russians believe Russia is among 10 most corrupt countries 02.02
- 107 He seems to have powerful patrons, and he is very smart The Corruption is still going on. Febr 02
- 106 Kremlin bailiffs pull the plugs on last independent television network jan 2002
- 105 GlavUpDK pays no taxes on the land it uses.
- 104 Indeed, last year Mr. Bush cited the 30 percent Russian.... January 25, 2002
- 103 Pugachyov is not some Putin protege plucked from obscurity TV 6 NTV jan 2002
- 102 Russian President Vladimir Putin appears to be ushering in a new era
- 101 Two held in first criminal probe into Gazprom
- 100 During its eight years of operation, Estline never posted a profit 2002.01
- 99 Corruption remains major problem in Latvia "I dont see any light at the end of the tunnel", 2002
- 98 Putin warns audit chambers against politicisation . jan 02
- 97 Bosse Ringholm - Riksgälden och Flygförsäkringsmarknaden!
- 96 Work to curb economic crime, corruption not good enough - Russian minister 25 dec 2001
- 95 Putin Answers Russians´ Questions NYT 24 dec 2001
- 94 Russia there is only one easy and relatively inexpensive way to ship goods -- by rail
- 93 Chubais Doesnt Mind the Heat Over UES
- 92 And Gazprom will soon find out if it is next
- 91 The Yeltsin-era insiders career is over and a wider war on corruption is under way
- 90 Visa hassles for many tourists are to be reduced from feb 02
- 89 Ombudsman concerned with corruption at Russian border checkpoint
- 88 Probes Giving Ministers Jitters
- 87 Moscow Gets New Tool for Money Monitoring
- 86 RUSSIA: The government-criminal alliance
- 85 RUSSIA: Rankings Rain on Economic Parade
- 81 Foreign Policy Research Institute WATCH ON THE WEST
- 80 Are Bribes a Great Deal? Russia 2001?
- 79 The attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., 11 September 2001
- 78 U.S. Campaign Presents Benefits for Russia
- 77 Foreign Workers Face New Red Tape
- 76 The attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., 11 September 2001
- 75 Yakovlev Decree Sets Sights on Corruption
- 74 New Details in RusAl Murder Suit
- 73 Stealing the State, and Everything Else A Survey of Corruption in the Postcommunist World
- 72 St. Pete Should Brace for Capital Invasion
- 71 Why Does Russia Need Vertical Integration?
- 70 After a false start, Russia may at last be breaking free of the shackles of
- 69 "There is no place for a radio like Ekho Moskvy here anymore."
- 68 RUSSIA: Ethos of corruption in nuclear establishment
- 67 Baltic States Membership in NATO Unlikely
- 66 RUSSIA: Audit blasts $880 million Moscow charity scheme
- 65 RUSSIA: $10 billion per year foreign direct investment lost due to non-transparency says PwC
- 64 RUSSIA: Prosecutor vows to pursue extradition of media mogul
- 63 Corruption in Russian newspapers exposed
- 62 Putin tightens curbs on press with bank raid
- 61 Wife Says Russians Have Rediscovered Their Pride
- 60 Putin Moving to Control Russia on All Political Levels
- 59 Oligarch hits out at his Kremlin monster
- 58 Russian Journalists Targeted in Attacks Corruption Investigators Face Slashed
- 57 Putin Moving to Control Russia on All Political Levels
- 56 Oligarch hits out at his Kremlin monster
- 55 RUSSIA: MEDIA EXECUTIVE ORDERED ARRESTED, VOWS TO STAY OUT OF COUNTRY
- 54 WESTERN AID TO RUSSIA ``LACKING OVERALL STRATEGY``
- 53 USA: GAO AUDIT REPORT FINDS AID TO RUSSIA FAILED
- 52 GAO AUDITORS SAY AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT LAX IN HANDLING RUSSIAN FOOD AID
- 51 BANKS WORK WITH TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL TO ESTABLISH ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PRINCIPLES
- 50 The High Price of Russias Military Improvement Plan
- 49 In Russia, Rich Get Poorer, Poor Get Poorer
- 48 Russia Makes me Nervous-Latvias Vike-Freiberga
- 47 RUSSIA: GIANT MEDIA FIRM CHARGED WITH FRAUD OVER ASSETS TRANSFERRED OFFSHORE
- 46 RUSSIA: ELECTRONIC ANTI-CORRUPTION PROPOSED USING THE INTERNET
- 45 Increasing the Risk of Investing in Russian Companies
- 44 Russian auditor confirms graft in Govt.
- 43 Swiss firms mafia links
- 42 Russia: Putin’s Coming Concession to the Oligarchs
- 41 Gridlock: All Trains Lead to Moscow
- 40 BEREZOVSKII SAYS KREMLIN THREATENS HIM OVER ORT SHARES
- 39 Russia continues to be an intensely dangerous place to work
- 38 The Long Arm of Organized Crime Reaches Deeply Into St. Petersburg's
- 37 RUSSIA
FEDERAL PROSECUTOR SEEKS TO OVERTURN PRIVATIZATION DEAL…
- 36 Russia Makes me Nervous
- 35 Putin Begins Crackdown on Russia's Oligarchs
- 35 Russia Formulates a Hybrid Economy
- 35 Regional Bosses Give Initial O.K. To Putin Move
- 34 Latvia Worried About Delay in NATO Baltic Expansion after Yugoslav War
- 34 Moscow Threatens "Hostile" Western Media
- 33 Russia’s Dwindling Population Ensures Rigid Foreign Policy
- 32 Paper Mocking Yakovlev Is Seized
- 31 Russians Plan To Jack Energy Prices
- 30 Moscow Budget
- 29 Baghdad, Belgrade and Moscow Collaborate Against Washington
- 28 Actualizing
the Alliance: Russia and China Move Toward a Pipeline
- 27 Russia Helping Iraq Upgrade Air Defenses
- 5 The Consequences of Russias Looming Food Shortage
- 4 Putin’s Friendly Face Will Not Last
- 3 Reforms in Post-Soviet Russia Failed. Nov 1999
- 2 THE CRISIS IN RUSSIA (Published in USA Sep 1998)
- 1 To bee a good Citizen of Sweden you must remember this?
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Development of legal basis for transport and freight forwarding activities in the Russian Federation 05.04.2002
TransRussia-2002 publications 25.03.2002
Presentation by Valery Alisseitchik, President of the RF Freight Forwarders Association, at the international TransRussia-2002 Conference
At present legal base for the transport and freight forwarding activities in the Russian Federation practically doesnt exist. Chapter 41 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation is related to the Agreement on Transport Forwarding and doesnt entirely define freight forwarding activity as such. It just defines framework of this activity and a fact of Its existence In the civil and legal practice.
Articles 801-805 of the Civil Code state main provisions of the Agreement on Transport Forwarding. At the same time It is worth noting That even the term "transport forwarding" doesnt correspond to the real situation, since the freight forwarder represents the interests of the cargo owner, but not (he interests of the transport provider, and therefore it would be legally correct to use the term "freight forwarding". The code states that according to the Agreement on Transport Forwarding one party (the forwarder) takes responsibility to carry out or arrange fulfillment of the services, determined by the agreement for freight forwarding and related to the cargo transportation, for the remuneration and at thee expense of the other party (The client - the shipper or the consignee).
As a rule (he main provision of the agreement on freight Forwarding Is the arrangement of cargo transportation by unimodal or interrmodal ways, that is by one or several types of transport. In this case the freight forwarder imposes upon himself wide range of responsibilities. Particularly, relating a cargo owner hi Is acting as the carrier by agreement and becomes the agent of the cargo owner In his relations with actual carriers, ware-holders, transshipment enterprises, customs and other participants of the transportation process. Towards all of them- he is acting as a principal. Responsibility of the freight forwarder is determined in the wrong way. Article 803 of the Civil Code sets the responsibility of the freight forwarder in accordance with the rules of chapter 25 of the Civil Code. This chapter deals with the responsibility for the property of that party to the agreement, which directly owns or commands the material valuables that were paid over to this party by the other party. What concerns the freight forwarder, he mainly arranges documents of transportation and in few cases receives goods for his own treatment. Therefore, for this reason the international practice imposes the limitation of the responsibility of the freight forwarder.
The national freight forwarding rules are widely and actively used in the world practice. The general terms of the freight forwarders activity, which are ruling in Russia most thoroughly, regulate relations of the freight forwarder with his partners. However, these general terms do not have the legal nature and have limited range of the use. Their ruling may be applied only to the members of the association provided that they agree to use them.
In 1996 FIATA has adopted a new model of standard freight forwarding terms, the association has worked out and agreed with Its members new general terms of freight forwarders activity and is going to put them shortly into effect.
The purpose of elaboration of this document Is to simplify procedure of arranging documents for the agreement of freight forwarding.
Use of the general terms in international practice allows contractors not to conclude separate agreements on freight forwarding, but make reference to these forwarding conditions when establishing general relations. They should agree only on financial issues (the rates, tariffs and remuneration).
One should keep in mind that under our conditions use of the general terms in such form is quite problematic, since the tax imposing agencies and the customs make demands to conclude an agreement on freight forwarding in written form for each deal.
At the same time in a number of cases use of these terms is obligatory. Particularly, it is conditioned by the fact that In order to use four freight forwarding documents of FIATA (forwarding instructions, warehouse receipt, forwarders certificate of receipt and forwarders certificate of transport) it is required to use the national freight forwarding terms. They are being printed on the back side of the abovementioned FIATA document and without them the documents arc not valid.
The general terms corn price basic notions of the agreements on freight forwarding, rights and responsibilities of the freight forwarder and the cargo owner, their liability. That is. That The freight forwarding terms mean the agreement on freight forwarding which doesnt regulate the financial relations between the freight forwarder and the cargo owner.
National freight forwarding terms have different legal status in various countries. In some countries the/ have the validity of the law and in the other countries freight forwarding terms are approved by governments. Then there are some countries including Russia, in which the freight forwarding terms are approved by the commercial and industrial chambers.
Approval of the general terms by the Government of Russia would legalise principles of the agreement on freight forwarding. At the same time it would help freight forwarders and cargo owners to simplify their relationship. In a way It Is the unification of the relations under the agreement.
Insufficiency of legal base for freight forwarders activity leads to unstable position of freight forwarding enterprises as well as to different interpretation of those legal acts, which had been already adopted. What concerns the notion of exportation of freight forwarding services it has not been settled either. In this connection, tax imposing agencies in various regions of the country interpret provisions of the Taxation code differently and, as a consequence, taxation of freight forwarding services has a subjective nature.
Freight Forwarders Association of Russian Federation has taken direct part in working out a federal law on freight forwarders activity. However, in our view, the project of this law comprises some provisions of transport regulations and doesnt entirely reflect activity of the freight forwarder. We hope that during of discussion of this project of the law in the legal bodies of the executive organs (and especially In those of the legislative ones) It will undergo necessary changes in favor of the real regulation of the freight forwarders activity. In spite of some shortcomings of this project its approval will play a significant role in acknowledging the freight forwarding activity as the Independent part of services sphere.
At present work Is under way on project of law "On the railway transport" and °Regulations of the railways" In which the Association is lading an active part. It was suggested to include into these projects the provisions determining the legal status of freight forwarders. It will allow to differentiate clearly the rights and the responsibilities of freight forwarders and carriers while arranging and carrying out cargo transportation by railways-Association takes part in the work on new customs code, the government project of which comprises provisions on relationship between customs and freight forwarders. In the new customs code status of (he freight forwarder will be equated to the status of the cargo owner.
One of the important projects of the legal base for the freight forwarders activity is the "Convention on organizing freight forwarding activity of CIS member states". This document is being worked out under the aegis of the Executive Committee of the Community of Independent States and will regulate activity of freight forwarders in member countries. This document unifies freight forwarding activity CIS countries and works out common approach to the activity of the freight forwarders of these countries. Elaboration of this Convention has just begun and we are looking forward to fruitful cooperation with Associations of freight forwarders of CIS countries in elaboration and further approval of this legal act.
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